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Most such mutations affect the env gene, producing different envelope glycoproteins within a given individual.
The author Edward Hooper raised these issues in his book The River published in 1999.
A review of the book is available on the Poz website at .
Both Korber's and Vandamme's analyses find that argument of origin to be a very low probability event, hence quite unlikely.
Some variants can enter T cells but not macrophages and vice-versa. The B-clade is dominant in US, Europe, Southeast Asia, and South America.
Clades E and C are dominant in Asia and A, C, and D are dominant in Africa.
In fact, they mutate about one million times more frequently than organisms using DNA.