Eugenia silva dating

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Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot.

Conclusion This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics.

The Atlantic forest flora includes early diverging lineages such as the Poaceae subfamily Anomochlooideae (Judziewicz and Clark, 2007), , 2008).

Other Atlantic forest lineages appear to result from more recent colonization from other South American source areas such as birds (Cracraft and Prum, 1988), small mammals (Costa, 2003) and the genus (2006) conclude that the Atlantic forest flora comprises elements from both old and recently diverged lineages.

More recently, the refuge hypothesis is challenged by studies that predict historically unstable areas showing climatic stability during the Quaternary (Carnaval 500 species (Frodin, 2004).

The southern portion of the Atlantic forest, an extensive centre of endemism that coincides with the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira mountain ranges (Prance, 1982; da Silva , 2004), appears to be influenced more strongly by elements from extra-Amazonian biomes.

As an example, some Andean-centred taxa can be found in the South Atlantic forest but are absent in the North Atlantic forest (from Rio Grande do Norte to northern Espírito Santo states), e.g. Within the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot, areas of higher angiosperm diversity and endemism are thought to correspond to areas of glacial refugia (Carnaval and Moritz, 2008; Staggemeier , 2012).

The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood.

Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas.

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Palynostratigraphic evidence indicates that after its palaeotropical origin, the clades of contemporary Myrtaceae evolved and dispersed as far north as North America, reaching as far south as Antarctica by the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (65·5 Mya; Systma are found from the Late Eocene onwards in Australia, South America, New Zealand, Antarctica, Africa, North America, Europe and China (Thornhill and Macphail, 2012).

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