Signs of teenage dating abuse
To determine whether a child's injury was likely to have been inflicted rather than accidental, the clinician must establish the full extent of the injury and must understand the child's developmental level and abilities.
See Pediatric Concussion and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the signs and symptoms of TBI, determine the type and severity of injury, and initiate appropriate treatment.
NIS defines physical abuse as a form of maltreatment in which an injury is inflicted on the child by a caregiver via various nonaccidental means, including hitting with a hand, stick, strap, or other object; punching; kicking; shaking; throwing; burning; stabbing; or choking to the extent that demonstrable harm results.
The advantage to a narrow definition is that it objectively states what is and is not physical abuse; however, such a clear delineation of circumstances likely fails to identify all possible cases of physical abuse (eg, pulling the child's hair, biting the child's skin).
Additionally, newer definitions also consider the sociocultural context in which the injury occurs; folk healing practices may cause the appearance of nonaccidental injury to the child.
Finally, the effect of the physical abuse may not be limited to just the immediate injury findings.
Similar events have different effects that depend on the period and circumstances in which the event occurs (eg, the child interacts and has an impact on the family, the family influences the child).
Naturally, spirit is capable of using them to connect. I have a hummingbird feeder outside my office window. Spirit would not use a hummingbird to get my attention, as another example.
Some states use broad definitions that encompass a wide range of injuries; other states use more narrow definitions that include specific signs and symptoms.
Physical abuse can produce various injuries and injury patterns in children.
The ecological model of human development and interaction is generally regarded as an ideal conceptual framework from which to approach the complex interactions among the caregiver, child, family, social situation, and cultural values leading to the nonaccidental injury or physical abuse of the child. The ecological model sees a child functioning within a family (microsystem), the family functioning within a community (exosystem), the various communities linked together by a set of sociocultural values that influence them (macrosystem), and all of these systems operating over time (chronosystem).
Each of these system components is interactional in nature and affects one another.
This article focuses on several common examples of inflicted injury dealing with the skeleton (eg, fractures), skin (eg, burns, bruises), and CNS (eg, subdural hematoma [SDH], abusive head trauma [AHT], shaken baby syndrome [SBS]/shaking-impact syndrome).