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Human skeletal and dental remains are an invaluable source of information for interpreting the way of life of past people and also provide the only direct evidence of non-living populations’ health status.This research paper discusses the sex-related health differences observed in two skeletal populations from Greece, an ancient and a modern, by employing multiple health indicators, and aims at determining the biological and possible social factors that contribute to this variation.Hypothesis 3: For dental enamel defects, it is almost impossible to establish a hypothesis.Women are more buffered against the effects of the environment, as their immune response is more effective on average than that of males, and their prognosis for recovery is more favourable; males have a higher mortality rate in most countries in the first few weeks and months of life (Roberts et al. So, one may assume that women should exhibit lower rates of dental enamel defects.Dental caries (: females 69.5%, males 49.5%) rates were higher for females than males (with the exception of the almost equal caries rates for the ancient population), most likely due to hormonal fluctuations, saliva content and flow, because female teeth erupt earlier and also perhaps as a result of differences in dietary habits.Periodontitis levels were more elevated in males (: females 29.1%, males 38.3%), possibly due to poor oral hygiene practices and excessive masticatory loading. DOI: Sex and Gender Related Health Status Differences in Ancient and Contemporary Skeletal Populations Velissaria Vanna UCL Institute of Archaeology Keywords Ancient and modern skeletal populations, contemporary Athens, health status, Hellenistic Demetrias, palaeopathology, sex and gender differences Introduction In this paper, an important but also complicated area of research is discussed: the sex-related health status differences as revealed by human skeletal remains and more particularly, palaeopathology.Comparing the (between the sexes) distribution of pathology between populations with major differences in all of the above factors, assists us in determining whether it is the social or the biological conditions that mostly affect the disease prevalence differences between male and female individuals.
Increased opportunities for education contributed to the emergence of women poets, artists, and philosophers.
Even if the masculine and feminine spheres may have been less sharply differentiated in the Hellenistic period compared with the Classical, the gender gap had by no means been eradicated, and this remains the case for women of 20th century Athens.
There are certainly signs of gradual social transformation; women were seen to play more prominent roles in public life, especially during the last two decades of the 20th century (Clogg 2002), but most of them were still housewives, secluded in their houses, and still in the process of fighting for equality between the sexes.
The same should be the case for periodontal disease and ante-mortem tooth loss.
It is also possible that higher periodontitis rates in females are the result of hormonal fluctuations (Hillson 1996).